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"Metaphors We Live By" by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson

In her influential (1975) work , Robin Lakoff depicted a typical female speech style, allegedly characterized by the use of features such as hesitations, qualifiers, tag questions, empty adjectives, and other properties, which she asserted to have a common function: to weaken or mitigate the force of an utterance. Thus tag questions "are associated with a desire for confirmation or approval which signals a lack of self-confidence in the speaker."

Robin Lakoff asserts that women use tag-questions far more than men do (

The results of the tag question study can be interpreted in several different ways. One view would be that Lakoff's general orientation is confirmed, even though she was wrong about the facts: affective tags are used by people who feel that they are in control of a conversation; the greater use of tag questions overall by men in the SEU data means that the men in those conversations felt more powerful. Another interpretation of such data has been that women's higher proportion of affective tags, which are used to manage the flow of conversation, means that women are saddled with a higher proportion of "interactional shitwork."

You Are What You Say Essay - 1325 Words

Neither Key, Lakoff, nor Kramer presents any evidence to support her contention.

If they do not talk like a lady, they are also ridiculed and criticized as unfeminine.” (p.6)
Another point Lakoff claims that women lack power, seriousness, and confidence.

It was not until the early 1970s, in the works of such researchers as Robin Lakoff, Anne Bodine, Ruth Brend, and Nancy Conklin, that the idea of a "Women's American English" was seriously investigated (Key, "Male/Female").

Analyzing Robin Lakoff's "You Are What You Say"

Robin Lakoff asserts that women use "a peculiar sentence intonation pattern .

In support of Lakoff, Frank cites a 1973 study by Sachs, Lieberman and Erickson which suggests that physiology alone can't account for all the differences in male and female pitch (51).

I do not laugh at your oaths nor jeer you;)
The President holding a cabinet council is surrounded by the great
On the piazza walk three matrons stately and friendly with twined arms,
The crew of the fish-smack pack repeated layers of halibut in the hold,
The Missourian crosses the plains toting his wares and his cattle,
As the fare-collector goes through the train he gives notice by the
jingling of loose change,
The floor-men are laying the floor, the tinners are tinning the
roof, the masons are calling for mortar,
In single file each shouldering his hod pass onward the laborers;
Seasons pursuing each other the indescribable crowd is gather'd, it
is the fourth of Seventh-month, (what salutes of cannon and small arms!)
Seasons pursuing each other the plougher ploughs, the mower mows,
and the winter-grain falls in the ground;
Off on the lakes the pike-fisher watches and waits by the hole in
the frozen surface,
The stumps stand thick round the clearing, the squatter strikes deep
with his axe,
Flatboatmen make fast towards dusk near the cotton-wood or pecan-trees,
Coon-seekers go through the regions of the Red river or through
those drain'd by the Tennessee, or through those of the Arkansas,
Torches shine in the dark that hangs on the Chattahooche or Altamahaw,
Patriarchs sit at supper with sons and grandsons and great-grandsons
around them,
In walls of adobie, in canvas tents, rest hunters and trappers after
their day's sport,
The city sleeps and the country sleeps,
The living sleep for their time, the dead sleep for their time,
The old husband sleeps by his wife and the young husband sleeps by his wife;
And these tend inward to me, and I tend outward to them,
And such as it is to be of these more or less I am,
And of these one and all I weave the song of myself.

Thus, neither study supports Lakoff's assertion that a women's intonation pattern exists.
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Robin Lakoff s You Are What You Say Critique Essay

Is it true that all of us, not just poets, speak in metaphors, whether we realize it or not? Is it perhaps eventrue that we live by metaphors? InMetaphors We Live By George Lakoff, a linguist, and MarkJohnson, a philosopher, suggest that metaphors not only make our thoughts more vivid and interesting but that theyactually structure our perceptions and understanding. Thinking of marriage as a "contract agreement,"for example, leads to one set of expectations, while thinking of it as "team play," "a negotiatedsettlement," "Russian roulette," "an indissoluble merger," or "a religious sacrament"will carry different sets of expectations. When a government thinks of its enemies as "turkeys or "clowns"it does not take them as serious threats, but if the are "pawns" in the hands of the communists, theyare taken seriously indeed. Metaphors We Live By has led many readers to a new recognition of how profoundlymetaphors not only shape our view of life in the present but set up the expectations that determine what life wellbe for us in the future. (from introduction in The Conscious Reader)

Summary Essay of Robin Lakoff s Essay - by Tdmarosy

Lakoff's description of female speech style was based on her remembered impressions rather than on any systematic, quantitative observation. When subsequent researchers went out and counted things, they often found it difficult to confirm her observations. For instance, some studies found that men actually used more tag questions than women did.

Free Essays on You Are What You Say Robin Lakoff …

Robin Lakoff about the importance of persuasive ability
She states, “In a meritocracy such as ours, we believe that those who best demonstrate the ability to think and persuade should have the lion’s share of power. Articulateness according to the rules goes a long way; and its possessors are assumed to possess intelligence and virtue as inseparable concomitants. People who say things right, who plead their cases well, will be listened to and their suggestions acted upon. They will make money, win the offices, find love, get all the goodies their society has to give.”

You Are What You Say Robin Lakoff Free Essays

Answer the following: To what extent do you agree with Lakoff’s statement? How does having the “ability to think and persuade” affect the quality of a person’s life?

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