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Jeremy Bentham founded Utilitarianism.
This paper will focus on how the World Trade Organization (WTO) acts in a utilitarian manner, producing the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people and causes the least amount of harm to the fewest people as possible....
This paper is going to analyze the theories of virtue ethicist, act utilitarianism, and Kant’s duty ethicists based on the given scenario for this case, and assume what a person representing these theories would recommend Alex as the right thing to do....
Jeremy Bentham is widely regarded as the father of utilitarianism.
In his book Utilitarianism he tries to improve on the theories of utilitarianism from previous philosophers, as he is a strong believer himself in the theory.
This is a fundamental challenge, as the Utilitarian philosophy decrees that the pleasure and pain experienced by all individuals, including animals, has equal worth and must be considered when determining the net benefit of an action’s consequences....
Utilitarianism theory was developed first by Jeremy Bentham.
In the following paragraphs we will explore the history of Utilitarianism and those who formed it, how it is meant to guide life, and how it is relevant to life in the Twenty-first Century....
Utilitarianism, “the forms of liberty and equality that will produce the greatest happiness depend on the state of the educational, political, economic, and social structure” (Harris).
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He suggests that utilitarianism may be the guide for morality.
Utilitarianism may not necessarily result in happiness as happiness is a personal choice. Something that makes one person happy may not make another happy. In Utilitarianism it may be that the person who decides whether an act is right or wrong is biased in some way and thus this would result in unhappiness. The act of deciding the right- or wrongness of an act is in itself an act and somebody must therefore decide if the decision to make an act right is right and thus a circular argument is created. However, there are different weaknesses for Bentham and Mill’s separate theories.
Utilitarianism Theory and Business Ethics | UK Essays
Bentham’s Utilitarianism is a type of Act Utilitarianism. It is a teleological, relative and consequential argument that uses the outcomes of an action to assess whether it is right or wrong and thus there are no necessary moral rules except one; that we should always seek to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. For this type of Utilitarianism, it is difficult to predict the consequences as there is a potential to justify any act, defining pleasure itself is subjective to the person who is asked, there is no defence for the minorities and it is impractical to suggest that we should calculate the morality of each choice that every single person on the world ever makes.
Ethics and Utilitarianism Essay Example for Free
Mill and Bentham each believe in their own type of Utilitarianism and have their own theories. Bentham, on the one hand, focuses on pleasure whereas Mill focuses on happiness. Similarly, in the search to maximise happiness, Bentham is concerned for the individual alone, but Mill suggests we should protect a common good. Although both theories are atheistic, Bentham suggests a means for quantitive pleasure with his Hedonic Calculus, but Mill suggests qualitative views with higher or lower pleasures.
Ethics and Utilitarianism Essay
For Mill, happiness was defined as something which is cultural and spiritual rather than just physical, and he distinguished between lower pleasures and higher pleasures. He famously wrote “It is better to be a human being satisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.” Mill recognised that there were different ways of assessing the value of happiness and was keen to link his theory with Jesus’ teachings. He did this by claiming that to ‘Love your neighbour as yourself’ constitutes the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality. Mill, unlike Bentham, suggested a positive place for rules within an overall utilitarianist approach, and thus believed in Rule Utilitarianism. He argued that society needs the basic principles such as truthfulness for without people telling the truth then nobody can be happy. Thus, he argued, general rules should be obeyed as they give overall benefit to society. However, they may be broken in exceptional circumstances and consequently Mill argued there was strong and weak rule utilitarianism; Strong Utilitarianism is one where one should never break a rule that is established, and Weak Utilitarianism is one where there may be situations when the assessment of the rules in a particular case of a particular act may take precedence over the general rule.
Utilitarianism and Business Ethics Essay Example for Free
As an egalitarian doctrine, where everyone’s happiness counts equally, the rational, relatively straightforward nature of utilitarianism offers an attractive model for democratic government.
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