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The first is the central nervous system (CNS).

Unfortunately, the etiology of MS is not known, however, it is generally thought of and accepted as being an autoimmune disorder inside of the central nervous system (Rietberg, et al.

The brain is the center of the nervous system and is a crucially complex organ....

The modification of the cells in the CNS, exist to limit transport across the membrane; these include the existence of tight junctions, a reduction in macropinocytosis and decrease fenestrae (Bengley, 2004). Other features include the presence of transporters including the amino acid carrier LAT1, efflux transporters such as the infamous P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance related proteins MRPs (Chen & Yiu, 2012).

The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord....

This is the process where impulses are sent to the central nervous system....

Due to the invasiveness of most of the highly effective techniques that overcome this barrier, coupled with the danger of opening the tight junctions or blocking the efflux receptors, alternate routes of delivery that bypass this barrier with no damage to it are the hallmark of modern research into brain drug development and delivery (Alam et al, 2010). With increasing populations affected with at least one form of neurological disorders and the ineffectiveness of formulations on the market, the olfactory route effectively targets the central nervous system, overcoming hepatic metabolism, tissue distribution and clearance; problems associated with oral and parenteral delivery (Pardridge, 1997).

The olfactory route has been known to provide an efficient, non-invasive and rapid route of delivering drugs to the CNS bypassing the BBB (Alam et al, 2010, Alhenn et al, 2012). The BBB although effective in limiting xenobiotics from the CNS, an advantageous protective mechanism, precludes adequate therapy for central nervous disorders (Alam et al, 2010). Various delivery approaches have been investigated with the most effective ones either being expensive or invasive.

Neurons live both in and outside the central nervous system....

It is composed of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)....

Polymeric devices such as wafers, microchips and nanospheres have been developed and extensively researched as delivery devices and have improved the delivery of medicines and vaccines (Alhenn et al, 2012). Polymer based devices are especially advantageous for olfactory drug delivery as they are found to be biodegradable, thermo-responsive, pH-responsive and mucoadhesive; these take advantage of the ph, temperature and protective mucus of the olfactory system (Halliday et al, 2012). Polymers with these properties are the basis for this proposed research in developing a sol-to-gel based delivery system to deliver quetiapine to the central nervous system via the nose.

Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are one of the most under-treated conditions world-wide. The WHO estimates CNS disorders to be responsible for about 6.3% of the world-wide burden of human diseases. Various medications have been approved for neurological disorders (ND); however, prognosis has been disappointing due to the problem associated with drug delivery. Efficient delivery of drug molecules for therapeutics is severely hampered by various barriers to biological membranes (Chen &Liu, 2012; Bengley, 2004). The blood brain barrier (BBB), a formidable barrier to CNS drug delivery presents a challenge in therapeutics (Bengley, 2004). Although beneficial in protecting the CNS, this barrier challenges effective drug delivery to the region by limiting access to the barest minimum for drugs utilizing the lipid mediated and carrier/receptor mediated transport; however, in most cases the barrier completely precludes access (Alam et al, 2010).

The body is controlled down to its core by the central nervous system....
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Figure 5: Olfactory route to CNS (Adapted from Bengley, 2004)

(a) The central nervous system, (b) The peripheral nervous system (a) The autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles and secretions in all the male reproductive organs (Dail, 1993)....

These nerves are a part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

The CNS, which coordinates the activities of the entire nervous system, is composed of the brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla), and the spinal cord that is connected, via the brain stem, to the brain; nerve cells carry impulses from it....

Central Nervous system is made up of spinal cord and the brain.

Central nervous system drug delivery: Developing a novel mucoadhesive thermoresponsive polymeric sol-to-gel device to achieve rapid nose to brain delivery of quetiapine for effective treatment of neurological disorders.

Short essay on Human Nervous System - …

The Neuron is found on the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems (CVS, PVS) and they are especially designed to transmit and receive messages quickly and efficiently.

Short essay on The Autonomic Nervous System

Sending and receiving messages through the spinal cord and the part of the spinal column called a trunk line, which contains neurons that connect to the Peripheral Nervous System....

FREE Essay on Study of the Nervous System

Central nervous system drug delivery: Developing a novel mucoadhesive thermoresponsive polymeric sol-to-gel device to achieve rapid nose to brain delivery of quetiapine for effective treatment of neurological disorders.

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