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However, perceptual illusions need a little more explaining.

In other words, even though the observer cannot know kernels P and A individually, it can know the composition kernel AP from actions in G to perceptual representations in X. Similarly, it can know the composition kernel DAP from perceptual representations X back to X. This is what allows the observer to interact with W, even though it is in a fundamental sense ignorant of it. By trying various actions, and observing their perceptual consequences, it can tweak its decision kernel (the one that picks actions) so that the resulting perceptual consequences of its actions more consistently enhance fitness; note that this logic applies both phylogenetically and ontogenetically.

Just take a peek at the Perceptual Illusions on last page of this report.

Relational theories of perception take veridical experience to involve a primitive, and hence unanalysable, metaphysical relation to external objects and their properties. While variants of the view differ as to precisely which objects or properties, facts or events, are admissible as relata of experience, they agree that the relational nature of perception contributes to, or determines, the phenomenal character of experience. Thus, while characterising perception in relational terms might appear to leave it open whether experiences also possess representational contents, in practice many relationalists oppose such content on the grounds that it fails to adequately characterise the fundamental nature of veridical perception (Brewer , ), or that it is explanatorily redundant (Travis , ). These stronger forms of relationalism thus oppose both intentionalism and representationalism (see Brogaard ; Travis ), and are the target for recent defences of those views (e.g. Byrne ; Burge ; Schellenberg ). The dispute between representationalists and relationalists therefore is as much concerned with what plays a particular explanatory role, i.e. determining the phenomenal character of experience, as it is the metaphysics of experience (Wilson ).

Sensation and Perception-Perceptual Illusions.

According to Awareness, we are sometimes perceptuallyaware of ordinary mind-independent objects in perceptualexperience. Such awareness can come from veridicalexperiences—cases in which one perceives an object for what itis. But it can also come from illusory experiences. For we think of anillusion as “any perceptual situation in which a physical objectis actually perceived, but in which that object perceptually appearsother than it really is” Smith (2002: 23). For example, a whitewall seen in yellow light can look yellow to one. (In such cases it isnot necessary that one is deceived into believing that things areother than they are). The argument from illusion, in a radical form,aims to show that we are never perceptually aware of ordinaryobjects. Many things have been called “the argument fromillusion”. But the basic idea goes as follows:

Using evolutionary games, we compel perceptual strategies to compete in a variety of environments and under a variety of selection pressures, and discover which will coexist, disappear, and dominate.

This development of perception could be learnt or innate.

The most controversial premise in the argument is premise (ii). Theother premises just reflect intuitive ways of thinking aboutperceptual experience, and so are unlikely to be targeted by oneseeking to reject the argument from illusion. This is clear enoughwith premises (i) and (vi), but what about premise (iv)? What thismeans is that the account of the nature and objects of illusory andveridical experiences must be the same. Though it may be disputed,this premise seems plausible. For veridical and illusory experiencesboth seem to be cases where one is aware of an ordinary object. Theonly difference is that in the illusory case, but not in the veridicalcase, the object one is aware of appears some way other than it infact is.

Does natural selection favor veridical perceptions? The five classes of perceptual strategies defined in the previous section allow us to ask this question with greater precision: Which of the five perceptual strategies are favored by natural selection, and under what conditions are they favored?

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Perceptual Illusions Essay -- Papers

A perceptual example is Batesian mimicry, in which a benign species avoids predation by resembling a dangerous species. In regions where the dangerous species is frequent, even poor mimics avoid predation; but where the dangerous species is infrequent, only good mimics enjoy this benefit (Harper and Pfennig ).

Sensation and Perception-Perceptual Illusions

Despite frequently, and in our view somewhat misleadingly, being portrayed as a two-horse race, many (though not all) of the above views appear prima facie compatible with at least some variants of relationalism, yielding the possibility of hybrid views. For example, one might agree that the phenomenal character of perception constitutively involves external objects while holding that experiences nevertheless possess, or may be associated with, representational contents. For this reason, positions on opposite sides of the debate—e.g. Naïve Realism or relationalism (Martin , , ; Campbell ; Brewer ; Fish ; Soteriou ) and phenomenal externalism (Tye ; Lycan )—can appear to have more in common than that which separates them, raising questions as to precisely what is at issue in the debate and how it is to be adjudicated. Moreover, as we have seen, representationalism does not preclude that perception directly relates us to perceptual objects. Rather, it purports to uphold a form of direct realism according to which we are ‘directly’ or ‘immediately’ aware of external objects, rather than via some perceptual intermediary such as sense-data (see Sect. ). Indeed, representation is itself a kind of relation, one term of which is the material object, or its properties, that we seem to perceive. Furthermore, even those who deny that perceptual representation entails the existence of a perceptual relation (e.g. Crane ) agree that we are causally related to perceived objects. If relationalism is to be distinct from representationalism, then it needs to involve a more specific claim.

Essay on Perceptual Illusion - 484 Words | Majortests

Precisely what relationalists mean by the ‘fundamental nature’ of perception, and how the relationality of experience determines phenomenal character, however, require further explication. In relation to the latter, John Campbell writes

Perceptual Illusions Essay - 1099 Words | Bartleby

Rather, human perceptual experience grants us only partial access to the full range of properties that such objects possess. That some of these properties, like colours, turn out to be relatively complex does not make them any less real. Instead, the scientific and commonsense world views each capture different aspects of reality at different levels of abstraction or description. Far from our perceptual experience being illusory, then, as scientists sometimes claim, it is the idea that these two levels of description are necessarily incompatible or mutually exclusive that is the true, more subtle illusion.

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