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The first, and more straightforward idea iscausal construction:
The metaphor of“social construction” has proven remarkably supple inlabeling and prompting a range of research across the social sciencesand humanities, and the themes of personal and cultural causation taken up in thisresearch are themselves of central concern. While mostphilosophical effort has gone towards the interpretation and refutationof provocative accounts of social construction arising especially outof studies in the history and sociology of science, socialconstructionist themes emerge across a host of other contexts, offeringphilosophical naturalists a range of alternate ways of engagingconstructionist themes. Philosophical naturalists as well asworking scientists have begun to take up this opportunity in ways thatuse the methods of philosophy and science to both state and evaluatesocial constructionist hypotheses (though not always under that label).Because of the powerful and central role culture plays in shaping humansocial environments, behaviors, identities and development, there isample room for continuing and even expanding the pursuit of socialconstructionist themes within a naturalistic framework.
The canonical way to understand socialconstructionism about human traits is as suggesting that human traitsemerge from experience of the world and as emphasizing the role ofculture in structuring the world so experienced. Suchconstructionism thus contrasts with nativist accounts of thosetraits.
Thus, race is often referred to as a social construct.
Finally, against the strong theory and for the weak theory, Searle insists, "it could not be the case, as some have maintained, that all facts are institutional (i.e., social facts), that there are no brute facts, because the structure of institutional facts reveals that they are logically dependent on brute facts. To suppose that all facts are institutional (i.e., social) would produce an infinite regress or circularity in the account of institutional facts. In order that some facts be institutional, there must be other facts that are brute i.e., physical, biological, natural. This is the consequence of the logical structure of institutional facts."
, Canadian philosopher of science, insists, "the notion that everything is socially constructed has been going the rounds. John Searle argues vehemently and in my opinion cogently against universal constructionism." "Universal social constructionism is descended from the doctrine that I once named linguistic idealism and attributed, only half in jest, to Richard Nixon." Linguistic idealism is the doctrine that only what is talked about exists, nothing has reality until it is spoken of, or written about. This extravagant notion is descended from Berkeley's idea-ism, which we call idealism: the doctrine that all that exists is mental."
This construction process is clinically known as “Constructivism”....
I begin by discussing socialconstructionism, and I then discuss some threads of contemporarynaturalism. I go on to consider two different sorts of objects ofsocial construction—representations and human traits—and discuss naturalistic, constructionist approaches to them.
Social constructionism is a theory or group of theories that seek to explain happenings or phenomena within a given setting. The issues under focus in this article is an attempt to explain the general meaning of given social scenarios, behaviors of individuals and happenings in the society (Warren, 2004) .it is from these that the term social constructionism arise. The term describes the development of meaning by individuals in regard to various phenomenons. Social constructionism as such attempts defines phenomena with their context socially. Most theorists believe that the varying constructs basically arise due to the interactions of human beings on different avenues which further necessitate the ability to share beliefs culture and other ideas. Humans shape each others perceptions and beliefs as they interact. Theorists like Gergen, Semin and Burr in their 90’s analysis of the subject, tackled these assumptions in highlighting the aspect of social constructionism that included; the social level of a society and the language of a communication used to convey ideas. The other assumption that they took into account is the implications of the constructed or ‘built’ explanations of meanings thereafter (Katerin et al, 2004). Others like Marx and Warren in the late nineties tended to highlight the role of the individual in the construction of the traits. This essay is a reaction to the different ways two articles tackle this issue and the similarities between the two articles.
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Social Construction Free Essays - StudyMode
Behaviors become crimes through a process of social construction. The same behavior may be considered criminal in one society and an act of honor in another society or in the same society at a different time. The legal status of a behavior—whether it is defined as a crime—lies not in the content of the behavior itself but in the social response to the behavior or to the persons who engage in it. Changes in the legal status of a behavior are often brought about by social movements and may entail considerable social conflict. Examples include the recent controversies over abortion policy and assisted suicide in the United States. Finally, the social response to crime—including many social-science explanations of criminal behavior—are based not only on the qualities of the act but also on the social and moral standing of the offender and the victim.
Free social construction Essays and Papers - 123helpme
As a philosophical orientation, social constructionism holds that the meaning of acts, behaviors, and events is not an objective quality of those phenomena but is assigned to them by human beings in social interaction. Meaning, in other words, is socially defined and organized and therefore is subject to social change. The major sociological statement in the constructionist tradition is . introduced social constructionism into the lexicon of social problems theory in the early 1970s (see also ). From a social constructionist perspective, a given act or behavior (abortion, drunk driving, domestic violence, race or ethnic bias) becomes a social problem through a process of successful claims-making by social movements or groups that advance a particular definition of a problem and seek to mobilize particular kinds of social response (such as psychiatric evaluation, medical treatment, or imprisonment). provides several applications. considers historical changes in the definition and social response to mental illness, drug addiction, homosexuality, and other conditions accompanying the growing dominance of the institution of medicine and the rise of the medical model of deviance.
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Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann. 1967. The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
Social constructionism | PremiumQualityEssays
Argues that reality is at once objective and external to the individual and continuously created and re-created by human beings. Berger and Luckmann's enormously influential argument was essential groundwork for the application of social-constructionist perspectives to the study of social problems, deviance, and crime.
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