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The Lance Opens the Floodgates of Religious Motivations

In the aftermath of the war, the country was renamed the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The new government imposed three-to-ten-year prison sentences on former South Vietnamese military officers and government workers, and generally sought to “re-educate” all southerners in the ways of socialism. Hundreds of thousands of southerners fled the country, many eventually settling in the United States, Australia, Canada, or France. Millions of others set about the task of reconciliation after so many years of warfare. The U.S. reneged on Nixon’s promise to provide reconstruction funds as the Vietnamese sought to rebuild their country and heal the division between north and south.

On the fall of Jewish Jerusalem and the causes of the resulting diaspora: Gambash, G. (n.d.). .

When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099, they immediately took over the buildings on the Temple Mount. The symbolic significance of the location in Christian tradition, which had been abandoned during Byzantine rule in favor of the Holy Sepulchre, was reinstated. The decision to concentrate royal and military authority in the Temple Mount was largely influenced by the small number and impoverished nature of the Crusaders. After trekking across Europe and the Levant for several years, constantly engaged in battles or sieges, the Crusaders lacked the money and the manpower to fully garrison the city or to build new structures for administrative purposes. Many Crusaders had died in battle, while others completed their pilgrimage by praying at the Holy Sepulchre and then went home. Therefore, necessity demanded that the King of Jerusalem take up residence in Al Aqsa, and then share his palace with the Knights Templar, who were a constant military presence in the Crusader Kingdoms and sworn to protect pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem. The religious center of the Kingdom, located at the Holy Sepulchre, was thus extended to the Temple Mount, residence of the King and the new military order.

Charlemagne: First Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Peters, Edward. The First Crusade: “The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres” and Other Source.

Neale, A People’s History of the Vietnam War; and Wilfred G. Burchett, Vietnam North (New York: International Publishers, 1966), p. 13. In an all-too typical incident, American bombers destroyed a leprosorium in Quinh Lap in April 1967, causing 120 deaths and over 1,00 wounded. When some of the lepers fled to nearby caves, the caves were mercilessly bombed through the month of June, killing well over a dozen more.

Stephen P. Randolph, Powerful and Brutal Weapons: Nixon, Kissinger and the Easter Offensive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007); Truong Nhu Tang, A Vietcong Memoir: An Inside Account of the Vietnam War and its Aftermath (New York: Vintage Books, 1985); David Biggs, Quagmire: Nation Building and Nature in the Mekong Delta (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2010), p. 204; Martin Van Crevald, The Age of Airpower (New York: Public Affairs, 2011), p. 366; Mickey Grant, “The Cu Chi Tunnels (59-minute documentary film, 1990), ; Jonathan Neale, A People’s History of the Vietnam War (New York: The New Press, 2003), pp. 99-100; and Stephen Budiansky, Code Warriors: NSA’s Codebreakers and the Secret Intelligence War Against the Soviet Union (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2015), p. 259.

Christian-Jewish Interactions During the First Crusade

European Interactions during the First Crusade

The coup against Ngo Dinh Diem in November 1963 happened in part because Kennedy administration officials feared that Diem might opt for an end to the war through an agreement with the enemy. Reports that the successor government led by Duong Van Minh might have similar intentions caused Washington to become disenchanted with it as well.

He explains how these knights do not sin when they kill their opponents but in fact honor God. And he will go on to say that Knights of the Templar are not “man-killers”, but “evil killers” destroying the enemies of the Lord and purifying his kingdom on Earth. These orders institutionalized the Crusader ethos and provided a stable military force in the Middle East bound by their oaths of obedience and military discipline. The formation of the Christian Knight was complete.

Effects of the Crusade on Sunni-Shia Balance of Power
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Christian Symbolism on the First Crusade

The National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, chaired by Milton Eisenhower, interviewed more than 1,400 witnesses to the events and studied FBI reports and films of the confrontations. Its report, released on December 1, 1968, characterized the convention violence as a “police riot,” albeit on the part of a minority of police officers, and recommended prosecution of those officers. The police officers were not prosecuted, but seven movement organizers – Abbie Hoffman, Rennie Davis, John Froines, David Dellinger, Lee Weiner, Tom Hayden, and Bobby Seale – were indicted by the U.S. Justice Department on March 29, 1969, on charges of conspiracy and traveling across state lines to “incite a riot.” Five were convicted of the latter charge, but their convictions were overturned on appeal.

The Routes of the First Crusade.

The melees resulted in 668 arrests. The rest of the battle figures included: one person shot dead, 425 treated for injuries at the movement clinics, 200 treated on the spot, 400 needing treatment for tear-gas inhalation, and 101 treated in hospitals. On the other side, twenty-four car windshields were broken, seventeen police cars were dented or otherwise damaged, 192 of the 11,000 police personnel involved needed hospital treatment; only ten claimed that they were kicked by demonstrators, six said they were hit, and four said they were assaulted by crowds of protesters.

Civilian homes destroyed in Saigon in the Tet counteroffensive

In fact, Nixon waited until June 8th to announce the first withdrawal of 25,000 GIs, which amounted to less than five percent of the 540,000 troops stationed in Vietnam. Nixon knew that the withdrawal of U.S. troops would reduce U.S. leverage in negotiations, but he was obliged to appease public opinion at home. His duplicitous strategy toward the peace movement was to steal its thunder by gradually withdrawing U.S. troops while at the same time denouncing the movement for urging withdrawal. Sam Brown commented, “It seemed that he was going to get out of Vietnam as slowly as possible, while selling the idea that he was getting out as fast as possible.”

The First Crusade: Social and Economic Factors of the …

By the spring of 1968, the patriotic ‘rally-round-the-flag effect was wearing thin and recognition of the war’s mounting costs was sinking in. On April 27, the Mobe sponsored another major demonstration, this one relatively peaceful. About 100,000 people congregated in New York to hear Coretta Scott King, Mayor John Lindsay, and other speakers. Another 20,000 gathered in San Francisco. A group of forty active-duty GIs were given the honored place at the head of the demonstration in San Francisco.

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